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|Title: ||Contribution of legumes to wheat productivity in Mediterranean environments of central Chile|
|Authors: ||Espinoza, S.|
del Pozo, A.
|Keywords: ||N-15 natural abundance|
|Issue Date: ||2012 |
|Publisher: ||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS|
|Citation: ||FIELD CROPS RESEARCH Volume: 133 Pages: 150-159|
|Abstract: ||The potential benefits of using a legumes have not been evaluated in the rainfed, cropping systems of central Chile where wheat (Triticum aestivum) is typically grown in rotation with oats (Avena sativa) using high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Two experiments were initiated to compare unfertilized legume-wheat cropping sequences to the current oat-wheat system without and with applications of N fertilizer (160 or 207 kg N ha(-1)). One experiment was located in the interior dryland of central Chile (average annual rainfall 650 mm), and the other in the Andean foothills (average annual rainfall 1200 mm). Treatments were established in different areas of the same two experimental sites in consecutive years (2008 and 2009) resulting in four separate trials evaluating legume effects on wheat yield (2009 or 2010). Estimates of N-2 fixation determined using the N-15 natural abundance technique indicated that around 21 kg shoot N was fixed for every tonne (t) of shoot dry matter accumulated by either narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), field peas (Pisum sativum), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), or white lupin (Lupinus albus) grown for grain, and by vetch (Vicia atroporpurea) grown in association with oats for green manure. When the amounts of N-2 fixed were adjusted to account for N in the nodulated roots, narrow-leaf lupin was calculated to have returned the lowest average net inputs of fixed N to the system following grain harvest (26 kg N ha(-1)) and field pea the highest (192 kg N ha(-1)). By comparison vetch in the green manure treatments where all above-ground biomass were incorporated into the soil returned 67 kg fixed N ha(-1). Depending upon location and year, growing grain legumes increased the subsequent N uptake by wheat by up to 60 kg N ha(-1) (average 35 kg N ha(-1)) and vetch + oats green manure up to 103 kg N ha(-1) (average 50 kg N ha(-1)). Wheat yields after grain legumes ranged from 2.4 to 3.0 t ha(-1) in the interior dryland and 5.4-6.4 t ha(-1) in the Andean foothills which were respectively 72-110% (90% average) and 69-83% (75% average) of the yields achieved by N fertilized wheat. Wheat yields after the vetch + oats green manure were 1.8 and 7.9 t ha(-1) representing 60% and 102% of the yield of N fertilized wheat. In the absence of N fertilizer or legumes wheat yields after oats were around half that of the N fertilized wheat. It was concluded that grain legumes or legume-based green manures provide opportunities to greatly reduce the reliance of wheat production upon N fertilizer. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
|Description: ||del Pozo, A (del Pozo, A.). Univ Talca, Fac Ciencias Agr, Talca, Chile|
|Appears in Collections:||Artículos en publicaciones ISI - Universidad de Talca|
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